ARNULF RAINER (1929, Baden, Austria)
He had virtually no formal instruction in art and his technical procedures are often unconventional. His early works, mainly drawings and prints, were inspired by the fantastic vein of Surrealism, and after a visit to Paris in 1951 he was influenced by Abstract Expressionist and Art Informel paintings that he saw there. Although he met André Breton in Paris, he soon moved away from Surrealism, and in the mid-1950s he began producing Overpaintings, in which he took as a basis a painting, drawing, or photograph (either his own work or someone else's) and partially obliterated the image with monochromatic colour. A similar concern with reworking surfaces occurs in many of his prints, in which he sometimes uses the same plates again and again. Overpaintings dominated Rainer's work for about a decade, until the mid-1960s, but he also produced a series of cruciform pictures during this period (Black Cross, 1956 ; Munich, Lenbachhaus). In 1963 he began collecting Art Brut and the following year he began experimenting with hallucinogenic drugs—indications of his interest in extreme emotional states. From 1973 he sometimes painted with his fingers.
2013 "Personal Structures", 54th Biennale di Venezia, Venice, Italy
2011 "Personal Structures", 53rd Biennale di Venezia, Venice, Italy.
2010 "Personal Structures Time-Space-Existence", Georg Kargl Fine Arts, Austria
2010 "Personal Structures Time-Space-Existence", Kuenstlerhaus Bregenz, Austria.
• De Jongh, Karlyn, ARNULF RAINER: UNFINISHED INTO DEATH. In: Carte d'Arte, Spring 2014, Italy
• De Jongh, Karlyn & Sarah Gold, PERSONAL STRUCTURES: TIME SPACE EXISTENCE 2, Global Art Affairs Foundation, 2013
• PERSONAL STRUCTURES: La Biennale di Venezia 2013. Exhibition Catalogue for PERSONAL STRUCTURES, part of the Venice Biennale, at Palazzo Bembo in Venice, 2013
• De Jongh, Karlyn & Sarah Gold, ARNULF RAINER: UNFINISHED INTO DEATH, PSAP #05, GlobalArtAffairs Foundation, Netherlands, 2011
• De Jongh, Karlyn & Sarah Gold, PERSONAL STRUCTURES: La Biennale di Venezia 2011. Exhibition Catalogue for PERSONAL STRUCTURES, part of the Venice Biennale, at Palazzo Bembo in Venice, 2011
• Lodermeyer, Peter, Karlyn De Jongh & Sarah Gold, PERSONAL STRUCTURES: TIME SPACE EXISTENCE, DuMont Verlag, Cologne, Germany, 2009